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I have learned that to create great animations, one must take heed of the principles of animations, may it be from animating things as obvious as the main character down to the most trivial, simple actions like a bouncing ball. One of the most important and often used principles is Squash and Stretch. As a character expresses a surprised emotion, the face is seen to be squashed and then stretched, creating facial flexibility, exaggeration and appeal. In the case of a bouncing ball, Slow-In and Slow-Out, as well as Timing, is used. For Slow-Out, there are more drawings as the ball bounces up (going out), creating a slow movement in the beginning, but there are less drawings going in, creating faster movements. The opposite is true for Slow-In. Also, to create proper acceleration and deceleration effects, timing and spacing is used wisely. Next is the Staging principle. In order to get a story or idea across the audience clearly, the audience need to know exactly what is happening, and in which case mostly involves a proper view of the characters or objects whereby the message is being conveyed. From the side view, it is obvious that a character is licking something, but it is not the case with the front view, as further supported by its shadows. The Arc principle is useful, as all objects – with exceptions of robotics and mechanical contraptions – do not move in straight lines. As seen with the finger movement, the ones moving in an arc seems to be more natural than that of a straight line. Anticipation prepares audiences for actions before it is done. Before tiger jumps, it first bends itself to gain momentum, allowing audiences to know that the tiger is about to move. Follow Through and Overlapping Actions are similar, as both agrees that not everything stops and moves at the same time respectively, thus creating more realistic, fluid movements. As a squirrel jumps or lands, it is seen that the main body always settles down first before the tail. Appeal, that which makes a character unique, enables audiences to remember or relate better to a character. Instead of standing with both arms on hips symmetrically (twinning), it is more appealing to pose differently but a proper anatomical balance must be maintained for an accurate body structure, also known as Solid Drawing. Exaggerations creates more appeal to actions, may it be used with realism in mind or to be more animated. Instead of just regular boxing, the cartoon is exaggerated by pushing its swinging action further, creating a more animated appeal.




With these principles, I would suggest to my group that Follow Through and Overlapping Actions should be used adequately for animations to run smoothly and realistically. Staging is also important. The main focus should be staged properly to provide users a clear view and understanding of the scene. Squash and Stretch should also be practiced, as it is used a lot in all animations and provides more appeal. Close attention should be taken when it comes to Timing and Slow-In and Slow-Out. It may be tricky to space each drawing properly to create desired timing, but would be great if a mixture of everything could be combined into one animation.



David Atkinson. 2009. Animation Notes #5: 12 Principles of Animation. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 27 February 15].


Mark Masters. 2014. Understanding the 12 Principles of Animation. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 01 March 15].


Matt Bugeja. 2014. 12 Principles of Animation. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 27 February 15].


knuFaD-zzaJ, (2010), Principles of Animation [ONLINE]. Available at: [Accessed 01 March 15].


Quentin Geluyckens. 2013. 87seconds. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 05 March 15].


  1. ftleow says:

    1. Should use 3rd person writing style, but not ‘me’, ‘i’, ‘we’
    2. citation is needed in the paragraph
    3. Good to reflect your opinion and design plan
    4. written content is good and informative

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